Germany - PYRAGRAF

Pilot Regions - Germany

Pilot Regions


Germany falls within the temperate, rainy climate belt of the mid-latitudes. Most of the country experiences a moderately continental climate characterized by cold winters with temperatures around 0 °C or slightly above, and warm summers reaching 23/26 °C in July and August. The northern areas like Bremen, Hamburg, Lübeck, Rostock, and Kiel are slightly milder but receive more rain and wind due to the Atlantic Ocean's influence. Historically, precipitation in Germany has been moderate and evenly distributed throughout the year, although this is changing. In 2022, there was excessive summer heat and insufficient rain, with anticipated heavy autumn rainfall.

Rainfall varies across regions: Berlin and Leipzig's plains receive 530-550 mm annually, central-southern lowlands (Frankfurt, Nuremberg) see around 600 mm, northwest areas facing the North Sea (Hamburg, Kiel) get 700-750 mm, while Rhineland-Westphalia (Cologne, Düsseldorf) experiences 750 to 850 mm, peaking at 1,150 mm near hills (Wuppertal). Bavaria (Munich) receives about 950 mm, with over 1,500 mm in mountainous regions like the Harz Massif and the Alps.

Sunshine is relatively scarce. North-western areas (Hamburg, North Rhine-Westphalia) see around 1,600 hours of sunshine annually, just over 1,700 hours in the northeast (Berlin), while the Baltic coast (Rostock), south-west (Frankfurt, Freiburg), and Bavaria (Munich) receive around 1,800 to 1,850 hours. Most of Germany features temperate brown and deep brown soils. The most fertile soils develop on loess in the northern Central German Uplands, Magdeburg Plain, Thuringian Basin, Rhine valley, and Alpine Foreland. These soils range from black to highly fertile brown types and are predominantly used for cultivation. Northern plains have sandy, loamy soils and brown podzols, with leaching due to deforestation and grazing. The northwestern North Sea coast has sandy, marshy areas suitable for grazing and crops.

Climate change leads to decreased soil carbon content and influences water storage capacity. Altered water balance due to higher temperatures, reduced summer rainfall, and prolonged dry spells could significantly decrease yields in agriculture and forestry and impact groundwater formation.

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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon Europe research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 101114608. The information and views set out in this website are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the European Union. Neither the European Union institutions and bodies nor any person acting on their behalf may be held responsible for the use which may be made of the information contained therein.

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